Miners Extract Sulfur From Ijen Crater


A sulfur miner starts his work early to avoid the sun heat on July 9,... News PhotoBeginnings,Crisis,Escape,Healthcare And Medicine,Heat - Temperature,Horizontal,Human Interest,Indonesia,Java,Miner,Sulphur,WorkingPhotographer Collection: Getty Images News 2013 Robertus PudyantoARJUNA, JAVA, INDONESIA - JULY 09: A sulfur miner starts his work early to avoid the sun heat on July 9, 2013 in Arjuna, Java, Indonesia. Ijen Crater, which is known as Kawah Ijen, is located in the Ijen Volcano region, bordered by Banyuwangi and Bondowoso in East Java Province, Indonesia. Ijen Volcano is 2,600 meters tall (8,660 ft), topped with a large caldera and a 200 meter deep lake of sulfuric acid. The quietly active volcano emits gases through fumaroles inside the crater, and local miners have tapped those gases to earn a living. Stone and ceramic pipes cap the fumaroles, and inside the sulfur condenses into a molten red liquid, dripping back down and solidifying into pure sulfur. Miners hack chunks off with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection, then load up as much as they can carry for the more than 3 kilometers to the weighing station. Loads can weigh from 50 to 90 kg (100 - 200 lbs), and a single miner might make as many as two or three trips return in a day. At the end of a long day, miners take home approximately Rp. 50,000. The sulfur is then used for vulcanizing rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes nearby. Sulfur widely used in fertilizer industry, cosmetics, skin disease drug, insecticides, paper, paints, plastics, petroleum processing, rubber and tire industry, sugar industry, batteries, chemicals industrial, explosives, weaving, film and photography, and also in metal or steel industry. (Photo by Robertus Pudyanto/Getty Images)